Evolving Toward Humans
The new skull from Chad: Sahelanthropus
Cladogram of australopithecines. Figure 20.5.
Ardipithecus, Australopithecus anamensis
Footprints at Laetoli
Australopithecus in South Africa
Site of Sterkfontein
Image of A. garhi.
Oldowan artefact. Figure 20.9.
BROWSE the SARC (Stone Age Reference Collection)
The Appearance of Homo
Early species of Homo
The skull KNM-ER-1470. Better than Figure 20.8. It is sometimes called Homo rudolfensis, and is on this Web site, but many people put it together with Homo habilis. (If so, it may be a large male skull.) The skull could have been reconstructed in a subtly different way that would have made a difference in both appearance and interpretation. This is a common, perhaps underestimated problem in reconstructing and understanding all fossil vertebrate skulls.
This skull is KNM-ER-1813 from East Turkana, usually called Homo habilis. It has a small skull for Homo, (possibly it is female?), but Homo teeth. This is another example of a problem that recurs in paleontology. Although the fossil does not change, ideas may change or errors may creep in.
Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia
Homo erectus and fire:
Tools of Homo erectus
The little people from Flores
Homo antecessor is a name given to fossils from Spain about 780,000 years old.
A skull from Broken Hill in Zambia, usually called "archaic Homo sapiens". At perhaps 300,000 years old, it is (according to some people at least, too old to call Homo sapiens, even "archaic", so should be placed within Homo heidelbergensis.
The Bodo cranium from Ethiopia, around 600,000 BP.
A skull of Homo heidelbergensis from Steinheim, Germany
Arago skull, from Spain
Homo heidelbergensis skull from Sima de los Huesos, Spain, around 400,000 BP.
An exquisite pink quartzite hand axe from Sima de los Huesos.
Beautifully crafted hunting spears were made by H. heidelbergensis in Germany around 400,000 BP. They are throwing spears, up to 3.2 m long (10 feet), carved to angle through the air like modern javelins, and they are associated with butchered horses and other bones from elephant, rhino, deer and bear.
The Evolution of Human Art and Culture
The earliest ornamental beads, from Blombos Cave. About 75,000 years old, from Blombos cave in South Africa; some of them are stained with ochre.
Ostrich eggshell beads from Tanzania. National Geographic news.
Cave Art in Europe
Cave painting, ?horse
Cave painting, bull
Bull (aurochs) from Lascaux.
Cave painting of mammoth
Cave painting of woolly rhinoceros
Claim that cave paintings include star maps, in other words, that these ancient peoples were competent astronomers.. Story from BBC News OnLine, August 9, 2000. Images here if you want to present this speculation, and the next item.
A follow-up claim: that Cromagnon people painted the earliest known lunar calendar on the walls of Lascaux cave. From BBC News OnLine, October 16, 2000.
Browse this site for more images: The painted caves of Lascaux, the French government site (text in English).
30,000-year-old ivory figurines carved by CroMagnons, discovered in Germany. The paper was published in Nature, December 2003. The bird, by the way, is a GOOSE!! Remember, you read it here first!
Evolution among Humans Today
Page last updated November 30, 2004
Links last checked August 28, 2004.
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