Marine Reptiles


The assessment of turtles has been radically changed by the realization that they are diapsids: that the lack of a skull opening (their anapsid state) is a secondary modification of what was once a diapsid state. They are certainly early diapsids, but it is not yet clear where they belong within that major group. As you would expect, the extent to which they are modified for aquatic life means that they may not retain important features that their undoubted terrestrial ancestors had. Stay tuned. Reference: Rieppel, O. 1999. Turtle origins. Science 283: 945-946.



The long-necked protorosaur Dinocephalosaurus. Sorry, Science News closed free access.





Air Breathers at Sea

Mesozoic Floras

Why Flowers Are Beautiful

The Earliest Angiosperms

The Most Primitive Living Angiosperm

is NOT, of course, the same thing as the earliest angiosperm. The most primitive living angiosperms are a bush from New Caledonia called Amborella, and the water lily, Nymphaea. These two plants are very different, which means they don't help in any definitive way in reconstructing what the earliest angiosperm was like, over 100 m.y.ago! But see the update on early angiosperm ecology from Feild et al. 2004.

Gymnosperms and Early Angiosperms, and their Early Pollinators

Some Insect Pollinators

Pollen Robbers

Plants and Seed Dispersal

Seed dispersal by non-biological agents

Seed dispersal by biological agents

  • Seed dispersal on Madagascar.

    Angiosperm Ecology and Evolution

    Angiosperm Chemistry

    The reference list for Chapter 14

    Page last updated April 8, 2013.

    Links last checked, March 16, 2013.

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