Chapter 12: Images for lectures

Updates for Chapter 12

General Dinosaur Web Links

Dinosaur Paleontologists

Dinosaur Expeditions

Reconstructing Dinosaurs


The other theropods (collectively called tetanurans (diverse carnivorous dinosaurs), separated early into the allosaurs (massive, powerful predators) and the lighter and more agile coelurosaurs.

Coelurosauria were extremely bird-like dinosaurs.

Within coelurosaurs, one lineage of small, agile carnivores includes the birds (Chapter 13) and the dromaeosaurs.


  • Stegosaurs and Ankylosaurs

    Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurus were thyreophoran (armored) Ornithischians

  • Ornithopods

  • Ceratopsians




    The earliest sauropod: from the late Triassic of South Africa. National Geographic News, July 10, 2003.

    Here is the latest largest dinosaur, in a news report from BBC News OnLine, January 19, 2000. This new unnamed dinosaur is from Argentina, and is estimated to have been 51 meters long (175 feet). Warning: the estimate is based on multiplying up from the size of two neck vertebrae.

    But wait: here is another "world's largest dinosaur" (in Spain this time, but not in the plain). BBC News OnLine, February 27, 2004.

    Computer reconstructions of sauropods are much improved over earlier attempts here is an article from Discover magazine in 2009. .

    However -- here is a new study of sauropod necks (August 2013) based on comparison with ostriches. It turns out that the muscles and cartilage have more effect than one would expect in limiting the neck flexibility, so that sauropod necks were likely not as flexible as some computer models have suggested, nor as stiff as other suggestions. The study is open access: PLoS ONE. And here is a short news article: BBC News

    Some sauropod pages:

    Dinosaur Biogeography

    Dinosaur Paleobiology: Life at Large Size

    Posture and Habitat

    Growth Rate

    Tyrannosaurus rex grew VERY fast. This is a study published in Nature in August 2004 (you won't find it freely available on the Web). It's from an all-star cast, lead author Greg Erickson. And it's the most thorough study yet of the growth of T. rex and other tyrannosaurids.

    Dinosaur Behavior

    Dinosaur Noses:

    Dinosaur nostrils may have been reconstructed in the wrong place.

    The soft tissue of dinosaurs

  • Profile of Mary Schweitzer and her work on dinosaur soft tissue. Discover, April 2006
  • In 2009, Mary Schweitzer reported finding original blood cells in a herbivorous duckbill dinosaur. Discover magazine blog

    Dinosaur diseases

    A dinosaur with a brain tumor. National Geographic News, November 24, 2003.

    Dinosaur Coprolites

    Were Dinosaurs Warm-Blooded?

    Down feathers and/or display feathers on theropod dinosaurs

    Dinosaur Eggs and Nests

    P. 168. High-Latitude Dinosaurs

    P. 170. Passive (Behavioral) Thermoregulation?

    P. 172. Dinosaur respiration: they could breathe while they ran

    This research helps to clinch a warm-blooded interpretation. Birds have a pelvic anatomy that allows them to rhythmically move the pubic bone to help pump air in and out of the lungs. David Carrier and Colleen Farmer found that living alligators have the same adaptation. And given the phylogeny of archosaurs, that makes it likely that dinosaurs did. Reasonable reconstruction of the dinosaur pelvic anatomy makes it almost certain that they did. So dinosaurs could breathe while they ran, not in the same way as mammals can, but with a mechanism that had a different evolutionary origin, within archosaurs.

    Alligators can breathe while they move (so dinosaurs could too) Press release, University of Utah, November 19, 2001, about the latest research by David Carrier and Colleen Farmer.

    Trying to explain "dinosaur graveyards".

    The reference list for Chapter 12

    Page last updated August 26, 2013.

    Links all checked, March 23, 2013

    Some broken links have remained, and need to be replaced.

    [For Chapter 11, click here ]

    [For Chapter 13, click here ]

    [Return to UC Davis Geology Department Home Page]