Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water

Chapter 8: Images for lectures

Notes and updates

The Earliest (Fossil) Land Floras

Complex early (Silurian) vascular plants.

THE EVOLUTION OF LEAVES This refers to a 2004 paper by Osborne et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They propose a theory for a 50 million year "delay" in evolving leaves which I suspect is faulty. So I have to tell you why I think that, and what the "real story" might be.

Late Silurian and Early Devonian Plants

The Rhynie Chert


Later Devonian Plants

Devonian Plant Ecology: the first trees and forests

The First Land Animals

P. 102. Osteolepiforms

P. 106. Air Breathing
I spend some time talking about the evolution of "bubble breathing". Here is an example of a specialised form of that, in mudskippers:

  • Tiktaalik has its own Web site with links

    The First Tetrapods

    Which creature would we call the first tetrapod? I (and many others) would choose the first tetrapod: the animal that had evolved feet rather than fins. It is becoming clear that toes (digits, to be anatomically precise) were a new structure in evolutionary terms, added on to bones that were present in the fins of earlier fishes.


    References for Chapter 8

    Page last updated April 7, 2013.

    All links checked March 16, 2013.

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